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Is Race Real?

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Racial tensions in the US and elsewhere continue to bubble up into political strife and violence. Whether we are looking at the cultural and political divide that has clogged up the US political process or the controversy over the potential indifference of Italians to the plight of African migrants killed when their boat overturned in the Mediterranean, we can see that racial ideologies and divides have a powerful impact on our thinking.

But how real is race? Are we divided into separate groups genetically or are we one great big human family that is divided only by prejudice and shortsightedness?

What Is Race?

Race as a biological concept is fairly straightforward. A race is a geographically isolated population within a species that is still biologically capable of breeding with other members of the species, but has a distinct genetic and morphologic identity.

Applying Race to Humans

This seems to be easily applicable to humans. People from different places can be divided into distinct races by characteristics such as skin color, facial features, height, and other characteristics. In fact, we have recently  discovered that even oral bacteria have a racial fingerprint.

The populations have been isolated geographically into distinct regions until modern travel technology opened up the world very recently. Peoples were isolated in Africa, Asia, and Australia.

But Does Race Really Apply to Humans?

The truth of race in humans is much less clear than it might seem at first. Humans are not really isolated populations. They have ranged across the world in successive waves, and trading expeditions have linked the continents since antiquity. Even before the rise of agriculture, we have evidence that people engaged in long-term trade for a number of items, most notably obsidian, which was traded across the middle east as early as 14,000 BCE. By 1500 BCE, trade routes linked India, Africa, and Europe. We know that the Polynesians migrated at least halfway across the Pacific Ocean, and it’s likely that they might have made it all the way to link up with the population of Native Americans that had previously come across the land bridge from Asia, not to mention the Vikings that crossed the North Atlantic (and there are those who suggest that an earlier European expedition had crossed much earlier).

Also, there is not as much actual differentiation between the races as it may seem. Many characteristics are not so clear-cut dividers as they may seem. Although certain races may seem to be distinct from one another, the races just have tendencies, but are not completely different. Statistical outliers in different populations overlap one another. Even something like oral bacteria is not completely separate from one another, and may also be more culturally determined as they pass contagiously from parents to children.

But the most important evidence that there is no such thing as race in humans is the genetic surveys of the population. According to recent data, about 85% of genetic diversity was within populations that lived close to one another. Regional populations belonging to the same race account for another 9% of variation, with differences between so-called races only accounting for about 6% of total genetic variation.

If race really does exist, it exists in only a very narrow sense, and for the most part we really are just one big happy family, with little to distinguish us from one another. Our differences are very superficial, and should not prevent us from coming together. Unfortunately, our vision is our most important sense, and what we see is what we believe, so it’s unlikely that people will dismiss the idea of race so easily.

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Dr. Matthew B. Candelaria (PhD, U of Kansas 2006) not only believes in a polyethnic society, he has embraced his polyethnic background  as an essential part of his American identity. He firmly supports the adoption of immigration policies that encourage the continued mixing of populations along the ancestral trading and migration routes of ancient populations.


5 Important Skills to be a Public Relation Officer

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At prima facie it is important to understand what public relation is all about. Despite of it being perceived as one of the glamorous profession PR is not exactly what many think. It is not all about boozy lunches and fun but comprises lot of hard work. In literal terms public relation officer has an incredibly challenging and varied work style. He/she performs several roles and shoulders different responsibilities. Therefore afore pursuing a career as a public relation officer it is essential to self-introspect and analyze to know whether you are a right fit for it or not.

Reading through this article will give you an idea about what PR involves and what are the important skills required to build a successful career path in it.qq


Public relation job is about building client’s image and maintaining reputation. It focuses on influencing behavior and opinion of the customers, general public, and stakeholders in support of clients. A PR professional ideally makes use of all forms of media and communications to build, manage and maintain image. He/she works for all forms of organizations- public bodies, services, businesses and voluntary groups.

He/she is responsible for communicating key messages of the organization by making use of third party endorsements, conducts research, monitors publicity and gauges feedback of the customers and other targeted groups of the society to develop new and effective strategies helpful in image building.

One needs to be highly cautious and ought to have different skills to break through the market clutter and build a successful career path.

Information handling: – As a PR professional what you should really possess is “Thirst for Knowledge”. Gathering information from different sources and analyzing is primarily what PR remains engrossed in. They interact with different groups of people, study their feedback about particular product or organization and accordingly channelize efforts to manage and build reputation. Moreover as a responsible professional he/she is expected to sagaciously handle the information and make right use of it. 

Soft Skills: – This includes 

– Willingness to meet new people from different walks of life 

-Extrovert personality 

-Ability to absorb different information 

-Good organizing skills

You are required to deal with different clients and have to accordingly organize PR campaigns for them. You may work on sports, fashion, or politics but whosoever you deal with make sure you effectively manage their activities. 

Flair for writing: – A good PR professional ought to have flair for writing with excellent command over English. At times PR has to write documents or comprehend messages which are to be disseminated to important people of the society. These messages are directed to build positive image of the company or the product. Therefore PR has to involve in cautious writing, eliminating all negative words and offending statements. Moreover he/she also prepare speeches for politicians, actors and corporate leaders, where writing skills plays crucial role. 

Time flexibility: – You cannot do anything in this case. If you are willing to pursue a career in public relation then you should better be prepared to work for long hours. As a PR you are expected to attend conferences, parties, interviews and events. If you are thinking it to 9 to 5 job then PR is exactly not a right fit for you. 

Willing to travel: – Are you comfortable with travelling? Is yes then PR profile will be easy to handle. Travelling is one of the most important characteristic of the job because there are occasions when you have to travel within India or abroad. 

Author Bio Subhadra Bhadauria writes for renowned educational site, and highlights few important skills required to build a career in public relation field. She is a passionate blogger and engages herself in novel writing.

Top Things To Do In Essaouira, Morocco

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Top Things To Do In Essaouira, Morocco

Essaouira is a city of outstanding beauty on the west coast of Morocco. A two-hour drive from Marrakesh, will take you into the heart of the city and let you walk along the beach. The town was designed along the same lines as the French town of Saint-Malo, by the same French architect, there is a slight feel of France about the town. Having said that the narrow alleyways, palm trees, red city walls and the pervading aroma constantly remind you that you are in Morocco.

Stroll the streets
The winding narrow streets are awash with a thousand different experiences. You cannot truly experience the real feeling and atmosphere of Morocco or Essaouira without getting the aromas of smoked wood, the mixes of spices and the shisha pipe through your system. All your senses are awakened to experience a new sensation and the further you delve into the city the more intense the experience.

 Go Windsurfing
The city of Essaouira is built on the site where the North Atlantic Ocean meets the Moroccan land. This naturally lends itself to a world-class windsurfing scene. The wind blowing in from the west is combined with the natural sand banks and the beach formation to create the near-perfect wind surfing conditions. The conditions are so good that the city has been called the ‘Wind City of Africa’.

 Wood Carving

Nearly every Moroccan city will have a plethora of wood carving tourist treasures for you to buy and take home, you will see them sold on every corner. In Essaouira, you can learn how to carve the wood yourself. Daily classes are freely available from the wood carvers found in Souk Rahba. Taking home a sculpture, which you carved yourself, will mean so much more than a brought treasure.

Experience a Camel Trek

There is something very traditional about heading out on a camel trek when you visit Morocco. Essaouia is no different and the city offers some extra ordinary camel trekking experiences. From a short morning ride, to a multi-day trek sleeping in traditional tents, the options are there for you. One word of advice, would be to make sure you have a good annual trip insurance policy. Ensure you have coverage for camel riding and any potential injuries.

 Grab a Coffee and Watch the World Go By

Some of the best memories from holidays are where you have just sat on the side of the world and watched as the locals go about their daily business. Seeing the intricacies of another culture from the comfort of a terrace lounge, whilst enjoying not just the view of the people but the view of the who port town, is an experience to treasure.

The great town of Essaouia is more than just a tourist town, it encapsulates everything that Morocco stands for. From the narrow streets to the camel trekking and from wood carving to traditional coffee, there is something for everyone and more importantly there is something for every kind of budget.

Lucy is a keen armature solo traveller and developed a love affair with Morocco. She runs her own blog online in which she shares her travel stories and aspirations.

Managing A Moving Sale

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This infographic titled ‘Managing A Moving Sale’ aims at highlighting the best way to handle a very important aspect of moving – getting rid of the extra stuff you do not wish to carry with you during your move. A ‘Moving Sale’ is the best way to remove such items while generating cash at the same time.

The infographic gives tips to effectively organize and manage a moving sale:

  • Planning: Planning regarding the best time to hold the sale, the laws, insurance, change amount and help required
  • Preparing for the Sale: Tips to prepare the to- be sold items to generate maximum cash from the sale
  • The Day of the Moving Sale : The best ways to categorize and display items to ensure maximum  sale

Offshore And Corporate Services – The Two Pillars Of A Business Venture

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Regardless of what your core product is, the augmented services play a vital role in brand awareness and recognition, and ultimately brand loyalty as well. Services help a business differentiate from the rest of the market players. Word of mouth is also derived from customers as well.

Though not directly delivered to end customers, offshore and corporate services do matter in brand development. Corporate services are basically the company’s support services, best business practices, knowledge base, and technological advancement that help serve the stake holders.

The term ‘stake holders’ here refers to both the internal business partners and external customers. Any activity that revolves around company-wide support services is termed as a corporate service. These can also be considered as consultation services. A few examples of corporate services are explained below.


The first in line are the business advisory services. Experienced business organizations offer these services to help others in business formation and development. The former helps the latter to identify future prospects and external opportunities with regards to business growth. Check how financial advisory is described in

Business advisory is backed by extensive research on the risk factors that the client’s company faces, such as legal, financial, and market risks. Business advisory services can be obtained at any phase of business development.

Consultants who offer corporate services specialize in both national and international markets. That brings us to the second type called company incorporation. Consultants of such services carry out the business and trademark registration processes. The consultants’ grasp on local and international business laws help the clients incorporate their business ventures.

Accounting services

Banking, taxation, accounting, and finance are complicated services. A company’s success largely depends upon its expertise in the given service areas, or more specifically business operations. Consultants and experts offer tips to help companies do their financing and banking effectively.

In addition, tax and accounting services can be outsourced to experts of the given corporate services. They look after the legal formalities and do the basic paperwork. Stock exchange investment research is one more corporate service whereby consultants evaluate the risk factors associated with financial decisions.

Offshore Services

Then there are offshore outsourcing services. International businesses need to outsource some of their business processes or entire subsidiaries to others so that productivity isn’t affected. While the top management might be busy looking after the business in its home country, those in the host country are best managed by others whom the owners outsource the business to.

Some of the most commonly outsourced offshore services include Information technology services, software programming, and research & development. Besides, business process and knowledge process outsourcing are also common in international business ventures. The basic objective is to avail the expertise from external sources essentially at low cost.

These are the various offshore and corporate services that help the businesses perform optimally and achieve their goals. Regardless of the size, no business can work alone. You need partners, customers, competitors, and outsourcing organizations in order to keep the business running.

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  •  License: Image author owned

Ben is a financial advisor and offshore services consultant. He is currently working at KSA Tax company, while enjoying living in Cyprus, a great place to live and also full of business opportunities.

How to Choose the Right Taxi Service to Reach Toronto Airport

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If you’re trying to get to the airport in Toronto, your best move is to take a taxi. Toronto taxi companies provide services all over the Greater Toronto Area. If you’re local to Toronto, taking a taxi makes sense to avoid parking costs and hassles at the airport. If you’re visiting the city, taking a taxi is advisable to save time and effort. Public transit and the airport bus both take a good bit longer, and, while they’re less expensive than a taxi cab in Toronto, they’re much more likely to make you late for your flight. So how do you choose the right taxi service to get you to the airport on time and in good stead? There are several options open to you, depending on whether you’re a local resident or visitor and how well you know the area.

 For Visitors Looking for a GTA Taxi

Screenshot_1 If you’re checking out of your hotel and headed for the airport, talk to the people at the concierge desk. Their job is to provide you with service and information about everything you need during your stay, and they’ll be knowledgeable about all of the local Toronto taxi services. Ask them which cab company is their favorite, how long pickup times usually are, and what their rates are, you’re bound to get a well-informed answer that will help you make your decision quickly and easily. Some hotels have deals with cab companies and can get you a reduced meter rate. This isn’t always the case, but it can be a big factor in your choice if it is. Your concierge will probably even offer to call a cab for you.

 If you’re worried about pickup times, talk to your concierge the day before you leave and arrange a taxi ahead of time. They can call in and make sure a cab arrives when you need to leave.

 For Residents Selecting a Taxi Cab in Toronto

If you are a local Toronto resident, and you need to take a taxi to the airport, plan ahead with some crowd sourcing. Ask your friends and social media contacts which Toronto taxi companies have worked best for them. You should also probably ask them which companies they avoid. It’s always good to know if someone has had a particularly bad experience with a Toronto taxi company before you choose. If you don’t ask this, you could end up calling the worst company in town, getting a late pickup, getting lost, and even missing your flight.

For Everyone Who Needs a LiftScreenshot_3

For anyone who wants to find a Toronto taxi to the airport without a lot of asking around, just whip out your smart phone and do a quick search. Review sites like Yelp and TripAdvisor are crowd sourced, with honest reviews from customers. Granted, you don’t know if one bad review was because someone was just having a bad day, or if the service actually was really terrible. However, if you scan through a number of reviews, you’ll get an idea of how many good and bad reviews the company gets.

If you’re near a bar or restaurant that serves alcohol, you can stop in, not for a drink, but to ask the bartender or the host or hostess what cab companies they recommend. Not only do bars and restaurants often call Toronto taxi services for their customers, a lot of people who work in the service industry don’t have cars of their own. They rely on taxis quite often, and they can tell you who they’ve had good and bad experiences with.

If you have a lot of baggage, or you’re traveling with more than one other person, you should tell the cab company this when you call. If they need to get you a minivan, and they don’t know this beforehand, it could waste a lot of time for both you and them. Make sure that you inform the dispatcher of your exact needs before they send a taxi to you. Also, don’t be shy about asking when the taxi will arrive. You can sometimes even ask for the driver’s telephone number so that you can contact them directly if you have any specific directions or questions about the ride and fare. If you follow these tips, you should have no problem selecting which Toronto taxi service to take you to the airport.


Shared Taxi Services in Toronto

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There are many reasons to have a taxi. One of the most common is being a tourist without a rental car. However, there are reasons for locals to want to take taxis as well. If you are looking for a Toronto taxi for a group of people, you have many options to choose from. You can easily find all sorts of shared taxi services in Toronto. Below, we will discuss the benefits of shared taxis and some of the services you have to choose from when looking for a GTA taxi.

Why Take a Taxi?

As mentioned above, there are many reasons you may want to choose a taxi. Not having access to your own car, usually because you have traveled by plane, is one of the most common. While some people may choose a rental car, getting a Toronto taxi is usually a better idea. Although you will have access to your rental for the entirety of your trip, you may still have problems. As a tourist in the city, you may not be able to find the landmarks you are looking for, even with GPS. It would be tragic to miss out on an important or historic site just because you got lost. Local taxi drivers know the city well, and they can take you wherever you need to go.

These reasons mean that tourists are understandably some of the chief patrons of taxis, but they are far from the only ones. Locals may well need taxis too. Again, familiarity with the area is one reason. Even if you live in the area, there may be places you don’t know, and a taxi driver will be able to find them for you. Another reason is safety. Everyone knows that if you’ve been drinking, you should make sure not to drive, and a cab is an easy way to do that. Drinking isn’t the only thing that can affect your driving, either. Lack of sleep and other problems can also make it harder to think clearly and drive safely. You shouldn’t take the risk; play it safe and call a cab.

Business owners may also want to use a Toronto taxi to move their clients or partners from place to place. Using an employee’s personal car or even a company car to do so can be difficult. It is harder to continue an important conversation while driving. In addition, personal and company cars are more likely to have some type of clutter, while taxis will be nice and neat.

Why Share a Taxi?

Not only are there some great points to taking a Toronto taxi, but there are also some to sharing a GTA taxi. Obviously, one is the fare, but that’s not the only reason. Obviously, any family who is traveling together, especially with kids, will want to take one taxi all together. This can be difficult for large families, but there are Toronto taxi services that offer van and SUV taxis in order to fit more people. Some even fit up to fourteen passengers in one cab! Even friends or business partners may want to share a taxi, though. Sharing a taxi rather than splitting up groups allows passengers to keep conversations flowing. For friends, this can be fun, and for business groups, this can be crucial to making a good impression.

GTA Taxi Services

There are many different taxi services in Toronto. Each has different specialties. A-1 GTA taxi services offers some of the larger vehicles mentioned above, permitting big groups to travel together. Some, like Dignity Transportation Inc., have special cabs that are accessible to those who have trouble moving on their own, whether they are using a walker or need a scooter or wheelchair. Others, like Toronto Airport Taxi, focus mainly on ferrying tourists between the airport and various hotels. Many cab services in Toronto also offer tours of Niagara Falls, a great service for anyone hoping to see that particular landmark.

Whatever you need from a Toronto taxi, you’re sure to find one service or another that offers that option to the Greater Toronto Area. Whether you’re a local hoping to travel between places in Toronto easily and quickly, or you’re a tourist hoping to catch all the sights, a Toronto taxi is an excellent choice.